How the Ketogenic Diet Works for Type 2 Diabetes

What is the keto diet?

Special diets for type 2 diabetes often focus on weight loss, so it might seem crazy that a high-fat diet is an option. The ketogenic (keto) diet, high in fat and low in carbs, can potentially change the way your body stores and uses energy, easing diabetes symptoms.

With the keto diet, your body converts fat, instead of sugar, into energy. The diet was created in 1924 as a treatment for epilepsy, but the effects of this eating pattern are also being studied for type 2 diabetes.

 

The ketogenic diet may improve blood glucose (sugar) levels while also reducing the need for insulin. However, the diet does come with risks. Be sure to discuss it with your doctor before making drastic dietary changes.

Understanding “high-fat” in the ketogenic diet

Many people with type 2 diabetes are overweight, so a high-fat diet can seem unhelpful.

The goal of the ketogenic diet is to have the body use fat for energy instead of carbohydrates or glucose. On the keto diet, you get most of your energy from fat, with very little of the diet coming from carbohydrates.

The ketogenic diet doesn’t mean you should load up on saturated fats, though. Heart-healthy fats are the key to sustaining overall health. Some healthy foods that are commonly eaten in the ketogenic diet include:

  • eggs
  • fish such as salmon
  • cottage cheese
  • avocado
  • olives and olive oil
  • nuts and nut butters
  • seeds

Effects on blood glucose

The ketogenic diet has the potential to decrease blood glucose levels. Managing carbohydrate intake is often recommended for people with type 2 diabetes because carbohydrates turn to sugar and, in large quantities, can cause blood sugar spikes.

However, carb counts should be determined on an individual basis with the help of your doctor.

If you already have high blood glucose, eating too many carbs can be dangerous. By switching the focus to fat, some people experience reduced blood sugar.

The Atkins diet and diabetes

The Atkins diet is one of the most famous low-carb, high-protein diets that’s often associated with the keto diet. However, the two diets have some major differences.

Dr. Robert C. Atkins created the Atkins diet in the 1970s. It’s often promoted as a way to lose weight that also controls numerous health issues, including type 2 diabetes.

While cutting excess carbs is a healthy step, it’s not clear if this diet alone can help diabetes. Weight loss of any kind is beneficial for diabetes and high blood sugar levels, whether it’s from the Atkins diet or another program.

Unlike the keto diet, the Atkins diet doesn’t necessarily advocate increased fat consumption. Still, you might increase your fat intake by limiting carbohydrates and eating more animal protein.

The potential drawbacks are similar.

Aside from a high saturated fat intake, there’s the possibility of low blood sugar, or hypoglycemia, from restricting carbs too much. This is especially true if you take medications that increase insulin levels in the body and don’t change your dosage.

Cutting carbs on the Atkins diet can potentially aid weight loss and help you control diabetes symptoms. However, there aren’t enough studies to suggest that Atkins and diabetes control go hand-in-hand.

Potential dangers

Changing your body’s primary energy source from carbohydrates to fat causes an increase in ketones in the blood. This “dietary ketosis” is different from ketoacidosis, which is an extremely dangerous condition.

When you have too many ketones, you may be at risk for developing diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). DKA is most prevalent in type 1 diabetes when blood glucose is too high and can arise from a lack of insulin. Although rare, DKA is possible in type 2 diabetes if ketones are too high. Being ill while on a low-carb diet may also increase your risk for DKA.

If you’re on the ketogenic diet, be sure to test blood sugar levels throughout the day to make sure they are within their target range. Also, consider testing ketone levels to make sure you’re not at risk for DKA.

The American Diabetes Association recommends testing for ketones if your blood sugar is higher than 240 mg/dL. You can test at home with urine strips.

DKA is a medical emergency. If you’re experiencing the symptoms of DKA, see your doctor immediately. Complications can cause diabetic coma.

The warning signs of DKA include:

  • consistently high blood sugar
  • dry mouth
  • frequent urination
  • nausea
  • breath that has a fruit-like odor
  • breathing difficulties

Monitoring your diabetes

The ketogenic diet seems straightforward. Unlike a typical low-calorie diet, however, a high-fat diet requires careful monitoring. In fact, you may start the diet in a hospital.

Your doctor needs to monitor both blood glucose and ketone levels to make sure that the diet isn’t causing any negative effects. Once your body adjusts to the diet, you may still need to see your doctor once or twice a month for testing and medication adjustments.

Even if your symptoms improve, it’s still important to keep up with regular blood glucose monitoring. For type 2 diabetes, testing frequency varies. Be sure to check with your doctor and determine the best testing schedule for your situation.

Research, the keto diet, and diabetes

In 2008, researchers conducted a 24-week study to determine the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on people with type 2 diabetes and obesity.

At the end of the study, participants who followed the ketogenic diet saw greater improvements in glycemic control and medication reduction compared to those who followed a low-glycemic diet.

2013 review reported that a ketogenic diet can lead to more significant improvements in blood sugar control, A1c, weight loss, and discontinued insulin requirements than other diets.

2017 study also found the ketogenic diet outperformed a conventional, low-fat diabetes diet over 32 weeks regarding weight loss and A1c.

Other beneficial diets

There’s research that supports the ketogenic diet for diabetes management, while other research seems to recommend opposing dietary treatments like a plant-based diet.

2017 study found that people with diabetes who followed a plant-based diet experienced significant improvements in blood sugars and A1c, cardiovascular disease risk factors, gut bacteria that is responsible for insulin sensitivity, and inflammatory markers like C-reactive protein.

Outlook

The ketogenic diet may offer hope to people with type 2 diabetes who have difficulty controlling their symptoms. Not only do many people feel better with fewer diabetic symptoms, but they may also be less dependent on medications.

Still, not everyone has success on this diet. Some may find the restrictions too difficult to follow over the long term.

Yo-yo dieting can be dangerous for diabetes, so you should only start the ketogenic diet if you’re sure you can commit to it. A plant-based diet may be more beneficial for you both short and long term. Your dietician and doctor can help you determine the best diet choice for managing your condition.

While you may be tempted to self-treat with a more “natural” route through dietary changes, be sure to discuss the keto diet with your doctor first. The diet may throw off your blood sugar levels, causing further issues, especially if you’re on medications for diabetes.

The 21 Best Snack Ideas If You Have Diabetes

Choosing healthy snacks can be difficult when you have diabetes.

The key is to choose snacks that are high in fiber, protein and healthy fats. These nutrients will help keep your blood sugar levels under control.

It’s also important to snack on nutrient-dense foods that promote overall health.

This article discusses 21 excellent snacks to eat if you have diabetes.

Apple and Peanut Butter

1. Hard-Boiled Eggs

Hard-boiled eggs are a super healthy snack for people with diabetes.

Their protein content really makes them shine. One large hard-boiled egg provides 6 grams of protein, which is helpful for diabetes because it keeps your blood sugar from rising too high after you eat (12).

In one study, 65 people with type 2 diabetes ate two eggs daily for 12 weeks.

By the end of the study, they experienced significant reductions in their fasting blood sugar levels. They also had lower hemoglobin A1c, which is a measure of long-term blood sugar control (3).

Eggs are known to promote fullness, an important aspect of managing type 2 diabetes. This disease is associated with a greater likelihood of becoming overweight and developing heart disease (4567).

You can enjoy a hard-boiled egg or two for a snack on their own, or garnish them with a healthy topping like guacamole.

2. Yogurt with Berries

Yogurt with berries is an excellent diabetes-friendly snack for a variety of reasons.

First, the antioxidants in berries may reduce inflammation and prevent damage to cells of the pancreas, the organ responsible for releasing hormones that lower blood sugar levels (89).

Additionally, berries are a great source of fiber. For example, a 1-cup (148-gram) serving of blueberries provides 4 grams of fiber, which helps slow digestion and stabilize blood sugar levels after eating (1011).

Yogurt is also known for its ability to lower blood sugar levels. This is partly due to the probiotics it contains, which may improve your body’s ability to metabolize foods that contain sugar (12).

Furthermore, yogurt is rich in protein, which is well-known for helping keep blood sugar levels under control. Greek yogurt is especially high in protein (13).

Yogurt and berries taste great together as a snack, as the sweetness of the berries helps balance out the tartness of the yogurt. You can simply mix them together, or layer them on top of each other to make a parfait.

3. Handful of Almonds

Almonds are very nutritious and convenient to snack on.

A 1-ounce (28-gram) serving of almonds provides more than 15 vitamins and minerals, including 32% of the recommended daily intake for manganese, 19% for magnesium and 17% for riboflavin (14).

Research has shown almonds may help control blood sugar in people with diabetes. In one study, 58 people who included almonds in their diets every day for 24 weeks experienced a 3% decrease in their long-term blood sugar levels (15).

In another study, 20 adults with diabetes who consumed 60 grams of almonds daily for four weeks experienced a 9% reduction in their blood sugar levels.

They also had decreased levels of insulin, a hormone that may worsen diabetes if levels are consistently high (16).

The ability of almonds to help stabilize blood sugar is likely due to the combination of fiber, protein and healthy fats they contain, all of which are known to have an important role in diabetes management (14).

What’s more, almonds have been shown to benefit heart health by reducing cholesterol levels and may also promote weight management, both of which are major factors in preventing and treating type 2 diabetes (16171819).

Since almonds are quite high in calories, it is best to limit your portion size to about a handful when eating them as a snack.

4. Veggies and Hummus

Hummus is a creamy spread made from chickpeas. It tastes great when paired with raw veggies.

Both vegetables and hummus are good sources of fiber, vitamins and minerals.

Additionally, hummus provides lots of protein, with 3 grams per tablespoon (15 grams). All of these properties may benefit blood sugar control in people with diabetes (2021).

One study found that individuals who consumed at least 1 ounce of hummus at a meal had blood sugar and insulin levels that were four times lower than a group that consumed white bread at a meal (22).

You can experiment with dipping several types of vegetables in hummus, such as broccoli, cauliflower, carrots and bell peppers.

5. Avocado

If you have diabetes, snacking on avocado may help manage your blood sugar levels.

The high fiber content and monounsaturated fatty acids in avocados make them a diabetes-friendly food. These factors may prevent your blood sugar from spiking after a meal (2324).

One study found that individuals with type 2 diabetes who included sources of monounsaturated fatty acids in their diets on a regular basis experienced significant improvements in their blood sugar levels (25).

You can eat avocado on its own, or make it into a dip such as guacamole. Since avocados are quite high in calories, it is best to stick with a serving size of one-fourth to one-half an avocado.

6. Sliced Apples with Peanut Butter

Sliced apples paired with nut butter make for a delicious and healthy snack that’s great for people with diabetes.

Apples are rich in several nutrients, including B vitamins, vitamin C and potassium, while peanut butter provides significant amounts of vitamin E, magnesium and manganese, all of which are known to help manage diabetes (26272829).

Both apples and peanut butter are also very high in fiber. One medium apple combined with 1 ounce (28 grams) of peanut butter provides almost 7 grams of fiber, which is helpful for keeping your blood sugar under control (112730).

Apples have been studied specifically for their potential role in diabetes management. The polyphenol antioxidants they contain are thought to protect pancreatic cells from damage that often worsens diabetes (3031).

You can also try pairing other types of fruit with peanut butter, such as bananas or pears, for similar health benefits.

7. Beef Sticks

Beef sticks are convenient, portable and diabetes-friendly.

What makes beef sticks an excellent snack for people with diabetes are their high protein and low carb contents.

Most beef sticks provide around 6 grams of protein per ounce (28 grams), which may help keep your blood sugar under control (32).

If possible, you should choose beef sticks that are made with grass-fed beef. Compared to grain-fed beef, grass-fed beef is higher in omega-3 fatty acids, which are known for their potential role in keeping blood sugar levels stable (3334).

It is important to note that beef sticks can be high in sodium, which can lead to high blood pressure in some people if consumed in excess. Thus, if you eat beef sticks, make sure to consume them in moderation.

8. Roasted Chickpeas

Chickpeas, also known as garbanzo beans, are an incredibly healthy legume.

There are close to 15 grams of protein and 13 grams of fiber in a 1-cup (164-gram) serving of chickpeas, making them an excellent snack for people with diabetes (35).

Research has shown that consuming chickpeas on a regular basis may play a role in preventing the progression of diabetes, thanks to their potential to help manage blood sugar levels (36).

In one study, 19 adults who consumed a chickpea-based meal daily for six weeks had significantly lower blood sugar and insulin levels after eating, compared to individuals who ate a wheat-based meal (37).

One way to make chickpeas easy to snack on is by roasting them, which makes them crunchy and convenient. They taste great when roasted with olive oil and seasonings of your choice.

9. Turkey Roll-Up

Turkey roll-ups are an easy snack to make.

They are essentially a breadless sandwich wrap consisting of turkey breast slices wrapped around low-carb contents of your choice, such as cheese and veggies.

Turkey roll-ups are a great snack option for people with diabetes due to their low carb and high protein contents. One wrap provides about 5 grams of protein, which will help prevent your blood sugar levels from rising too high (2).

In addition, the protein in turkey roll-ups may help lower your appetite, which is beneficial for preventing overeating and promoting weight management. Both of these are key factors in controlling type 2 diabetes (238).

To make a turkey roll-up, simply spread a tablespoon (about 10 grams) of cream cheese onto a slice of turkey and wrap it around sliced veggies, such as cucumbers or bell peppers.

10. Cottage Cheese

Cottage cheese is a great snack for people with diabetes.

A half-cup (about 112-gram) serving of small-curd cottage cheese provides several vitamins and minerals, in addition to almost 13 grams of protein and only 4 grams of carbs (39).

Interestingly, eating cottage cheese may help manage your blood sugar.

In one study, men who ate 25 grams of cottage cheese with 50 grams of sugar had 38% lower blood sugar afterward, compared to those who consumed sugar alone (40).

The blood sugar-lowering effects of cottage cheese are often attributed to its high protein content (414243).

If you choose regular cottage cheese rather than reduced-fat varieties, you’ll also take advantage of the blood-sugar-lowering properties of fat (414243).

Cottage cheese tastes great plain, but you can also combine it with fruit for extra nutrients and fiber.

11. Cheese and Whole-Grain Crackers

“Cracker sandwiches” are a popular snack, and you can make them on your own by topping a few whole-grain crackers with cheese slices.

They are a good snack choice if you have diabetes. While crackers can be high in carbs, the fat in the cheese and fiber in the crackers may prevent them from spiking your blood sugar (10114445).

Fat intake from dairy products such as cheese may slow the digestion of carbs, reduce insulin levels and promote the release of hormones that lower blood sugar, such as GLP-1 (444546).

Make sure you choose your crackers carefully, as many brands are high in refined flour and added sugar, which may negatively affect blood sugar levels. To avoid these ingredients, always choose crackers made with 100% whole grains.

12. Tuna Salad

Tuna salad is made by combining tuna with mayonnaise and other ingredients, such as celery and onions.

A 3-ounce (84-gram) serving of tuna provides 22 grams of protein and no carbs, which makes it a great snack option if you have diabetes (47).

Additionally, tuna is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which have been shown to help manage diabetes due to their potential to lower inflammation and improve blood sugar control (48).

You can make tuna salad even healthier and higher in protein by mixing it with cottage cheese or yogurt, rather than mayonnaise.

13. Popcorn

Popcorn is a very popular and healthy whole-grain snack food.

It has been deemed one of the best snack foods for people with diabetes, partly because of its low calorie density. One cup (8 grams) of air-popped popcorn contains just 31 calories (4849).

Snacking on low-calorie foods may aid weight control, which is known to promote decreased blood sugar levels and better overall management of type 2 diabetes (5051).

In addition, popcorn provides 1 gram of fiber per 1-cup (8-gram) serving, which is another property that makes it a diabetes-friendly food (49).

Since most prepackaged popcorn is full of salt, trans fats and other unhealthy ingredients, it is healthiest to air-pop your own.

14. Chia Seed Pudding

Chia seed pudding is made by soaking chia seeds in milk until the mixture achieves a pudding-like consistency.

It’s a healthy snack for people with diabetes because chia seeds are rich in many nutrients that help stabilize blood sugar, including protein, fiber and omega-3 fatty acids (52).

The fiber in chia seeds can absorb a significant amount of water, which may help control diabetes by slowing down the digestion process and release of sugar into the blood (53).

Additionally, eating chia seeds has been shown to help lower triglyceride levels, which can be good for heart health. This is beneficial because individuals with diabetes tend to have a higher risk of developing heart disease (5455).

15. No-Bake Energy Bites

Energy bites are a fantastic snack idea for people with diabetes.

They are a delicious and healthy snack made by combining and rolling ingredients of your choice into balls. Some common ingredients include nut butter, oats and seeds, such as in this recipe.

Most of the ingredients used to make energy bites are high in fiber, protein and healthy fats — three key nutrients known for keeping blood sugar stable (345657).

An added benefit of energy bites is their convenience. They don’t require baking, and you can carry them with you easily while you’re on the go.

16. Black Bean Salad

Black bean salad is a healthy snack.

To make it, simply combine cooked black beans with chopped vegetables, such as onions and peppers, and toss them in a vinaigrette dressing.

Since black beans are rich in fiber and protein, they make a healthy snack for individuals with diabetes. Eating them may prevent blood sugar spikes and help lower insulin levels after meals (58596061).

In one study, 12 people who consumed black beans with a meal had up to 33% lower insulin levels five hours after eating, compared to individuals who did not consume black beans (60).

Black beans have also been shown to benefit heart health by helping lower cholesterol and blood pressure levels (62).

17. Trail Mix

Trail mix is a snack made by combining nuts, seeds and dried fruit.

A 1-ounce (28-gram) serving of trail mix provides almost 4 grams of protein, which makes it a filling snack that may promote blood sugar control in people with diabetes (5763).

Trail mix also provides some healthy fats and fiber from the nuts and seeds, which have been shown to help reduce blood sugar and insulin levels (19).

The key is to avoid adding too much dried fruit to your trail mix, as it is quite high in sugar and may spike your blood sugar if you consume too much (64).

Additionally, it is very high in calories, so you should avoid eating too much trail mix at once. A reasonable serving size is about a handful.

18. Edamame

Edamame are unripe, green soybeans that are still in their pods. They are a very nutritious and convenient snack.

There are 17 grams of protein and 8 grams of fiber in a 1-cup (155-gram) serving of edamame, making it a great snack for people with diabetes (65).

In fact, some animal studies have shown that edamame may help lower blood sugar levels (6667).

It may also improve insulin resistance, a condition in which cells are unable to use insulin effectively, leading to consistently high blood sugar levels (6667).

More research is needed to determine the effects of eating edamame on diabetes in humans, but having it as a snack is certainly worth a try.

Edamame is typically served steamed, and you can enhance its flavor by mixing it with seasonings of your choice.

19. Homemade Protein Bars

Protein bars are a great snack option for people with diabetes due to the significant amount of protein they provide.

Many store-bought protein bars are high in added sugar and other unhealthy ingredients, so it’s beneficial to make your own.

This recipe for homemade protein bars includes peanut butter, whey protein and oat flour. To lower its sugar content, you can reduce the amount of honey and omit the chocolate chips from the recipe.

You can also try Lara Bars, a popular type of protein bar made with a minimal number of ingredients.

20. Peanut Butter Celery Sticks

A popular way to enjoy celery sticks is by dipping them in peanut butter. It’s another healthy snack option for people with diabetes.

First, celery sticks are very low in calories, providing only 16 calories per cup (101 grams). This can help you manage your weight, which helps control type 2 diabetes (68).

Furthermore, celery contains antioxidants called flavones, which have been studied for their role in lowering blood sugar levels (69).

Adding a tablespoon or two (about 16–32 grams) of peanut butter to celery sticks adds some extra protein and fiber to the snack, which will benefit your blood sugar control even more (21011).

21. Egg Muffins

Egg muffins are made by mixing eggs with vegetables and then baking them in a muffin tin. They make a quick, healthy snack for people with diabetes.

The main benefits of this diabetes-friendly food are the protein from the eggs and fiber from the veggies. Eating these may help keep your blood sugar stable.

This egg muffin recipe combines eggs with bell peppers, onions and spinach, in addition to some seasonings and hot sauce.

The Bottom Line

There are plenty of healthy snack options to choose from if you have diabetes.

A good rule of thumb is to choose foods that are high in protein, fiber and healthy fats, all of which are known to help maintain healthy blood sugar levels.

Individuals with type 2 diabetes have a higher risk of obesity and chronic illnesses, such as heart disease. Thus, it is also important to focus on foods that are nutrient-dense and healthy overall.

Snacking when you have diabetes doesn’t have to be difficult. There are many quick and easy snacks you can prepare and eat even when you’re on-the-go.

5 simple morning habits that can help you lose weight

5 New Year’s Resolutions to Boost Your Heart Health

New years resolution with a To Do next year book

Want to make your New Year’s resolutions really count this year? Then think about how some of the vows you make — to lose weight, reduce stress, quit smoking, exercise more — really get to the heart of the matter.

If you stick to these goals, you may just sail into next year with a healthier heart.

Cardiologist Leslie Cho, MD, says common resolutions often come down to boosting heart health — even though that’s not necessarily the initial intention.

She recommends these five heart-healthy resolutions that will serve you well all year.

1. Resolve to lose weight

“The No. 1 goal for most Americans is to lose weight — and often that resolution is one of the first they break,” Dr. Cho says.

But think of the benefits you’d reap if you could make steady progress in that area of your life.

When you’re overweight or obese, you increase your risk of:

  • Heart disease
  • Stroke
  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension
  • High cholesterol and triglycerides
  • Blood clots

To help you keep your resolution, Dr. Cho recommends focusing on lifestyle modification instead of “dieting.” If you set a goal of healthy eating and regular exercise, losing weight is often a natural byproduct. Or you can use our activity calculator to determine how much ― and what type ― of activity, you need to reach your goals.

There are many apps for your phone or tablet that can help you track your food intake and exercise. And it helps to understand your triggers so you can avoid them, she says. (Do you eat more when you’re stressed, bored or in a social setting?)

2. Resolve to get an annual physical

“Getting a checkup is a good thing,” says Dr. Cho, who sees many patients who haven’t been to a doctor in years.

Aside from ensuring that you have no major health problems, a physical allows your doctor to keep tabs on your blood pressure and glucose levels.

He or she will also likely discuss physical activity, and drinking, smoking and eating habits — they all affect your heart health, of course.

A yearly checkup is particularly important for women. They’re more likely to experience less-obvious symptoms of heart disease, Dr. Cho says. Yet many of her female patients only get “bikini medicine,” meaning they pay attention to breast and gynecologic issues but neglect the rest of their bodies.

Both men and women should get annual physicals to better focus on heart-health risk modification, she says.

3. Resolve to reduce stress in your life

“Reducing stress should be a goal for the whole country,” Dr. Cho says. “Highly anxious people tend to have more heart attacks and strokes.”

Make time in your day to do things that help you relax. Try meditation, talking with friends, getting outside for a walk, reading a book or exercising.

And while the internet can sometimes increase your stress levels, it also has the potential to be a tool for good. There are many websites and apps that will help you calm yourself or embrace reflection and relaxation. They can walk you through simple breathing exercises or facilitate meditation.

4. Resolve to get more sleep

Shorting yourself on sleep can lead to overeating, heart failure, hypertension and atrial fibrillation, Dr. Cho says.

“Having less sleep consistently can increase blood pressure and cause inflammation,” she adds. “That part of the brain that activates during sleep deprivation is near the part where hunger is, so we know that if you don’t sleep, you eat more.”

Tips for success: To get more ZZZs, Dr. Cho recommends that you:

  • Put your phone away long before bedtime.
  • Cut back on caffeine.
  • Sleep in a cool, darkroom.

5. Resolve to stop smoking and/or reduce alcohol and caffeine intake

Drinking in moderation is OK. But don’t start now if you don’t drink (even though you’ve heard red wine is good for you). If you do drink, Dr. Cho recommends no more than 6 to 8 ounces a day.

Drinking less alcohol and caffeinated beverages will help you sleep better and reduce stress. It may even help you lose weight, by reducing the empty calories you consume, she says.

And smoking cessation is great for your heart — it can significantly lower your blood pressure and heart rate.

If you resolve to make yourself healthier this year, talk to your doctor about ways to trim down, be more active and relax. You know in your heart those are all resolutions you can live (longer) with.

The Lifesaving Food 90% Aren’t Eating Enough Of

_105137329_gettyimages-512912134.jpg

Is there something in your cupboard that could extend your life? Photo from Getty Images.

If I offered you a superfood that would make you live longer, would you be interested?

Naturally it reduces the chances of debilitating heart attacks and strokes as well as life-long diseases such as type-2 diabetes.

And it helps keep your weight, blood pressure and cholesterol levels down.

I should mention it’s cheap and widely available in the supermarket.

What is it?

Fibre – it’s not the sexiest thing in the world but a major study has been investigating how much fibre we really need to be eating and found there are huge health benefits.

“The evidence is now overwhelming and this is a game-changer that people have to start doing something about it,” one of the researchers, Prof John Cummings, tells BBC News.

It’s well known for stopping constipation – but its health benefits are much broader than that.

How much fibre do we need?

The researchers, at the University of Otago, in New Zealand, and the University of Dundee say people should be eating a minimum of 25g of fibre per day.

But they call this an “adequate” amount for improving health and say there are benefits for pushing past 30g (1oz).

Is that all?

Well, a banana on its own weighs about 120g but that’s not pure fibre. Strip out everything else including all the natural sugars and water, and you’re left with only about 3g of fibre.

Most people around the world are eating less than 20g of fibre a day.

And in the UK, fewer than one in 10 adults eats 30g of fibre daily.

On average, women consume about 17g, and men 21g, a day.

What other foods have more fibre in them?

You find it in fruit and vegetables, some breakfast cereals, breads and pasta that use whole-grains, pulses such as beans, lentils and chickpeas, as well as nuts and seeds.

What does 30g look like?

Elaine Rush, a professor of nutrition at Auckland University of Technology, has put together this example for getting into the 25-30g camp:

  • half a cup of rolled oats – 9g fibre | two Weetabix – 3g fibre | a thick slice of brown bread – 2g fibre | a cup of cooked lentils – 4g fibre | a potato cooked with the skin on – 2g fibre | half a cup of chard (or silverbeet in New Zealand) – 1g fibre | a carrot – 3g fibre | an apple with the skin on – 4g fibre

But she says: “It is not easy to increase fibre in the diet.”

Prof Cummings agrees. “It’s a big change for people,” he says. “It’s quite a challenge.”

Are there any quick and easy tips?

The UK’s National Health Service has a page full of them.

They include:

  • cooking potatoes with the skin on | swapping white bread, pasta and rice for wholemeal versions | choosing high-fibre breakfast cereals such as porridge oats | chucking some chickpeas, beans or lentils in a curry or over a salad | having nuts or fresh fruit for snacks or dessert | consuming at least five portions of fruit or vegetables each day

What will the benefit be?

Well, after analysing 185 studies and 58 clinical trials, the results are in and have been published in the Lancet medical journal.

It suggests if you shifted 1,000 people from a low fibre diet (less than 15g) to a high-fibre one (25-29g), then it would prevent 13 deaths and six cases of heart disease.

That’s during the course of these studies, which tended to follow people for one to two decades.

It also showed lower levels of type-2 diabetes and bowel cancer as well as lower weight, blood pressure and cholesterol levels.

And the more fibre people ate, the better.

What is fibre doing in the body?

There used to be a view that fibre didn’t do much at all – that the human body could not digest it and it just sailed through.

But fibre makes us feel full and affects the way fat is absorbed in the small intestine – and things really become interesting in the large intestines, when your gut bacteria get to have their dinner.

The large intestines are home to billions of bacteria – and fibre is their food.

It’s a bit like a brewery down there, admittedly one you wouldn’t want a pint from, where bacteria are fermenting fibre to make a whole load of chemicals.

This includes short-chain fatty acids, which are absorbed and have effects throughout the body.

“We have this organ set up to digest fibre, which a lot of people just don’t use very much,” says Prof Cummings.

Why is this relevant now?

The fact fibre and whole-grains and fruit and vegetables are healthy should not come as a surprise.

But there is concern people are turning their back on fibre, with the popularity of low-carb diets.

Prof Nita Forouhi, from the University of Cambridge, says: “We need to take serious note of this study.

“Its findings do imply that, though increasingly popular in the community at large, any dietary regimes that recommend very low-carbohydrate diets should consider the opportunity cost of missing out on fibre from whole-grains.

“This research confirms that fibre and whole-grain intakes are clearly important for longer term health.”

The study has been done to help the World Health Organization come up with official guidelines for how much fibre people should be eating to boost health and they are expected next year.

Follow James on Twitter

Analysis from BBC Reality Check

One of the suggested ways of boosting the amount of fibre in your diet is to switch from white bread to brown or wholemeal.

This is what has been happening to sales of those products, based on a succession of government surveys of household spending since 1974.

From the mid-seventies to the mid-eighties, white bread fell while brown and wholemeal rose.

Since then, white bread sales have continued to fall, but brown and wholemeal bread sales have been falling for most of that period, although at a slower rate.

So it looks as if while overall demand for bread has been falling, a higher proportion of bread sold has been higher fibre.

Whole wheat pasta has made less of an impact on sales than higher fibre breads, with a survey for the British Journal of Nutrition finding that pasta accounted for less than 1% of the occasions on which people were consuming whole grains.

Are Potatoes Good for You?

They’ve been maligned in nutrition circles for decades, with links to obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. But they’re also highly satisfying and provide many essential nutrients.

So are potatoes good for you or not?

“Potatoes have gotten a bad rap because of the way they’ve been eaten and processed in the modern food system,” says Charles Mueller, Ph.D., a clinical associate professor in the Department of Nutrition and Food Studies at New York University.

Undoctored potatoes are healthy, says Mueller: They supply a good mix of nutrients. It’s when people deep-fry them in oil or smother them in butter, sour cream, or salt that spuds turn into nutritional duds.

Tuber Nutrition

A medium white baked potato (about 6 ounces) with skin has 159 calories, 36 grams of carbs, and nearly 4 grams of fiber. Potatoes also are packed with a healthy mixture of vitamins and minerals such as magnesium, potassium, and vitamins B6 and C. A medium potato, for example, supplies about 15 percent of your daily need for magnesium; and about 20 percent of your daily potassium need.

“Most people don’t get enough potassium their diet,” says Ellen Klosz, a Consumer Reports nutritionist. “It’s very important for helping to control blood pressure.”

And few Americans get the daily recommended amount of fiber, which has a slew of health benefits, from helping curb cholesterol, protect against diabetes, control weight, and even lower the risk of colorectal cancer. Dietary recommendations say most adults need around 25 to 30 grams of fiber per day. If you eat a medium potato with skin, you’ll get about 4 grams. If you eat one without it, you’ll only get about 3 grams. “It’s always good to eat potatoes with the skin,” says Mueller, “because you pick up some fiber.”

But Mueller says that you can greatly minimize the boost in blood sugar from potatoes if you eat them as part of a healthy meal that includes protein.

Another way to minimize the GI effect of potatoes is to cool them after cooking and either eat them cold (as in a potato salad) or reheat them. This alters the chemical structure of the potato’s carbohydrates, and forms resistant starch, a type of fermentable fiber that may lower blood sugar levels after a meal and have other health benefits.

Additionally, Klosz says, when you compare potatoes with other some other high GI staples, such as white rice, they’re actually much lower in calories and carbs, and supply more fiber.

For most people, having potatoes a couple of times a week can be part of a healthy diet, says Mueller. But only if you watch your serving size and what you put on them.

“Potatoes are among the most popular vegetables in the American diet,” Klosz says. “But most are consumed in their processed form, such as fries and chips. Only 26 percent of the potatoes we eat are fresh or unprocessed.” And even when eaten fresh, dousing them in butter or cream might negate their health benefits.

That might at least partially explain the findings of some observational studies, such as those from Harvard researchers, which found that eating potatoes frequently may increase the risk of high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and weight gain.

In one of the studies, people who ate potatoes two to four times per week had a modest increase in type 2 diabetes risk—7 percent—compared with those who ate them less than once a week. Those who had 7 servings a week, however, had a 33 percent increased risk. While all forms of potatoes—baked, boiled, fried, and mashed—were linked to the disease, French fries were most problematic.

That was also the case in the other Harvard studies. For instance, people who ate four or more servings of baked, boiled, or mashed potatoes had an 11 percent increased risk of high blood pressure compared to those who ate them less than once a month. For French fries, the risk was 17 percent higher.

People often make the mistake of counting potatoes as a vegetable in their meals. “While it is a tuber and it’s in the vegetable family,” says Mueller, “it is a starch, and should be considered equivalent to eating pasta, whole wheat pasta, whole wheat bread, or brown rice.” The Harvard studies suggest that if you replace potatoes with a nonstarchy vegetable or a whole grain in your meals, it helps protect against chronic health problems.

A Range of Colors

In addition to white potatoes, you can find yellow, purple, and red-fleshed varieties. The colors come from compounds in the plants called phytochemicals such as anthocyanins, carotenoids, and flavonoids, which have antioxidant properties and may protect against cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other chronic diseases. Red- and purple-fleshed potatoes have nearly twice the flavonoids as white ones.

What about sweet potatoes? Technically, they’re not really potatoes—they aren’t part of the same plant family—and they may be a little healthier. A medium sweet potato is just slightly lower in calories and carbs (147 calories; 35 grams of carbs) than a same-sized white version, but has about one more gram of fiber. And it provides enough carotenoids to supply more than five times your daily recommended dose of vitamin A. Purple sweet potatoes offer the highest levels of anthocyanins, a type of flavonoid linked to heart and liver benefits, compared with white, yellow, and orange-fleshed types.

How to Prepare Potatoes Healthfully

It’s pretty simple: Go easy on the potato toppings and add-ins. Just one pat of butter and two tablespoons of sour cream adds about 100 calories and 9 grams of fat. “When you add a lot of cream and butter and salt,” says Mueller, “you can increase the caloric value of them and you’re more likely to overeat.” Why? Because they taste good.

The same goes for sweet potatoes. Adding marshmallows, butter, and brown sugar ups the fat and sugar load significantly. There are 14 grams of sugars, and 9 grams of fat in a half-cup of sweet potato casserole vs. about 7 grams of sugars and no fat in a medium sweet potato. Avoid canned varieties packed in heavy syrup.

Fortunately, potatoes—whether sweet or regular—don’t need much to make them tasty. Cut them into cubes and roast with a little rosemary, olive oil, and salt and pepper; or boil or microwave them whole. When eating them baked or mashed, keep the condiments to a minimum.

Top 20 Nutrition Myths of 2020

You’d think that, with all the information at our fingertips today, nutrition myths would have become less pervasive than in our grandparents’ time.

Unfortunately, the internet is rife with misinformation, and it can be really difficult to tell what’s evidence-based without reading the original research yourself. Myths that were previously passed through word-of-mouth now spread like wildfire through social media, blogs, and even established media. Between a 24-hour news cycle, studies that are both long and difficult to read, and journalists scrambling for the latest viral hit, information often gets published without being verified. And once we’ve assimilated a piece of information, we seldom think to challenge it — we treat it as fact.

As an educational organization that looks only at the evidence, we’ve taken the time to identify 20 nutrition myths that just won’t die. At the end of each section, you’ll find a link to pages that further explore the section’s topic with extensive references.

Myth 1: Protein is bad for you

Protein is bad for you

Carbs and fats often take the blame for various health issues, but the third macronutrient isn’t always spared by the media. Protein has often been accused of harming bones and kidneys.

Let’s tackle those two claims one at a time.

Bone loss

More protein in the diet has been linked to more calcium in the urine. Two reasons have been suggested to explain this phenomenon:

  • Your body draws from its calcium stores (in bones) to buffer the acid load caused by dietary protein. This has led researchers to suggest that higher protein intake could cause greater bone loss.[1]
  • Most studies that looked at protein intake and calcium excretion list dairy products as a protein source,[2] so higher urinary calcium could simply be the result of higher calcium intake (i.e., more calcium in, more calcium out).

Therefore, looking only at calcium excretion wasn’t enough. Subsequent studies showed that dietary protein promotes dietary-calcium absorption[3] and that high protein intake “promotes bone growth and retards bone loss (whereas) low-protein diet is associated with higher risk of hip fractures.”[4]

What happens is that when you ingest more protein, you absorb more of the calcium in your food, so less calcium ends up in your feces. Later, your body gets rid of the calcium it doesn’t need, so more calcium ends up in your urine, but not as much as would have otherwise ended in your feces.[5] Therefore, an increase in protein intake leads to an overall decrease in calcium excretion, which points to an increase in calcium retention.

All in all, current evidence suggests that protein actually has a neutral or even protective effect on bones.[5][6]

Kidney damage

Other studies determined that high protein diets increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR), a marker for waste filtration in the kidneys.[7] It was argued that increased GFR was a sign that undue stress was put on the kidneys,[8] but later research has shown that kidney damage does not occur as a result of diets high in protein.[9][10]

In conclusion, randomized trials thus far have not shown high-protein diets to harm the bones or kidneys of otherwise healthy adults.[9]

The Truth: Protein, even in large amounts, isn’t harmful to your bones or kidneys (unless you suffer from a pre-existing condition).

  •  

Myth 2: Carbs are bad for you

For decades, fat was the enemy; today, there’s a new scapegoat: carbs. Vilifying carbs and insulin seems to get more popular by the year.

Many people believe that the popular glycemic index and the lesser-known insulin index[11] rank foods by their “unhealthiness”. Yet the available research shows that low-glycemic diets, when compared to higher-glycemic diets, have either no effect or only modest beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome factors,[12][13][14][15][16][17][18] even in diabetics.[19][20][21] Furthermore, a low-glycemic diet doesn’t always lead to better glycemic control than do other diet patterns.[22]

Similarly, the carbohydrate-insulin model of obesity, which theorizes that obesity is caused by carbs and the insulin response they evoke,[23] is not well-supported by the evidence.[24][25]

In 2017, a meta-analysis of 32 controlled feeding studies was published.[26] Some of those studies were metabolic ward studies and some were free-living studies, but in each case, meals were provided by the researchers, who wished to ensure that each diet would provide specific amounts of calories and nutrients (within each study, the diets were equal in calories and protein but not in fat and carbs).

So what were the results? Low-fat diets resulted in greater fat loss (by an average of 16 grams per day) and greater energy expenditure (by an average of 26 Calories per day). This would give low-fat diets a fat-loss advantage, though one “so small as to be physiologically meaningless”.[26]

These results are consistent with those of long-term, free-living, randomized controlled trials designed to test a diet’s real-world effectiveness (meaning that the participants were given instructions but left to prepare their own meals). Meta-analyses show that keto, low-carb, and higher-carb diets lead to similar weight loss.[27][28]

Eating less carbohydrate (especially processed carbs) can be helpful if it helps you eat healthier. But if cutting carbs makes you eat worse or feel worse, or if you can’t stick with the diet, you should consider other options. If you wish to lose weight, what matters is not to replace fat by carbs or carbs by fat, but to end most days on a caloric deficit.

The Truth: As long as you do not overindulge, there is nothing inherently harmful about carbohydrates.

 

Myth 3: Fats are bad for you

Eat fat, gain fat, right? For many decades, the traditional way to lose weight has been to subject oneself to a low-fat diet, yet current evidence suggests that, given the same caloric deficit and protein intake, low-fat and low-carb diets produce similar weight losses.[17][26][29][27][28]

Moreover, while low-fat diets are not inherently unhealthy, shunning all fat from your diet can be dangerous, since your body needs to consume at least some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. As for saturated fat being the main driver of cardiovascular disease: yes, just another myth.

At the end of the day, trans fat is the only kind of fat that has been shown to be categorically detrimental to health.[30] Naturally occurring trans fat and industrially produced trans fat seem to have a similar effect on blood lipids,[31] but you don’t need to worry about the minute amounts of trans fat naturally occurring in whole foods (notably dairy products).[32] The trans fat you need to shun is a byproduct of partially hydrogenated oils: this type of trans fat was once a common ingredient of processed foods — so common that trans fat consumption was linked to more than half a million coronary heart disease (CHD) deaths worldwide … just in 2010.[33][34]

Industrially produced trans fat was banned in the US in 2015, and all products were supposed to be phased out by June 2018, but manufacturers received an extension until July 2019.[35] That means that a lot of products with this type of trans fat are still on the shelves today.

And you might not even know it by looking at food labels, because the FDA used to allow for a product to be labeled as having 0 grams of trans fat as long as a serving of the product had less than 0.5 grams. However, even today, the manufacturer usually gets to decide what a “serving” is, which means that, while a 5-gram serving (maybe a small treat the size of your thumbnail) may have officially 0 grams of trans fat, 100 grams of the product may have 8 grams (if 5 grams of the product contains in fact 0.4 grams of trans fat).

The Truth: If you stay in a caloric surplus, a low-fat diet won’t make you lose weight. You need some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, and saturated fat won’t necessarily give you a heart attack (but too much trans fat may).

 

Myth 4: Egg yolks are bad for you

If there’s one thing the media is good at, it’s scaring you away from perfectly healthy foods.

Yes, foods high in cholesterol can increase LDL cholesterol in most people, but to a fairly small extent on average.[36] Moreover, some of the micronutrients and other bioactive compounds in egg yolks could interfere with cholesterol absorption, which may help explain why many studies have failed to find an increase in cholesterol in egg eaters.[37][38][39]

More to the point, while a review of cohort studies (a type of observational studies) associated higher consumption of cholesterol or eggs with higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in a dose-response manner,[40][41] clinical trials (a more rigorous type of study) found no association between eggs and CVD,[42][43][44][45][46][47] except in some people who “hyper-respond” to dietary cholesterol.[48][49]

The Truth: Eggs are a great source of protein, fats, and other nutrients. Their association with high cholesterol and cardiovascular disease has been severely overblown.

 

Myth 5: Red meat is bad for you

The common refrain: red meat causes cancer.

Absolute statements are why we have so many nutrition myths. Cancer is particularly difficult to discuss in absolutes. After all, almost everything we eat has the potential to be involved in cancer development[50] Yet, red meat has been fingered as a likely culprit.

Some compounds — such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), found in smoked meats — have been found to damage the genome, and damaging the genome is the first step to potential cancer. Current evidence suggests that processed red meats, particularly those that are more charred during cooking, can pose a greater cancer risk for people with poor diets and lifestyles.[51][52]

But if you moderate your red meat intake, exercise regularly, eat your fruits and veggies, consume adequate fiber, don’t smoke, and drink only in moderation, red meat’s effect on cancer isn’t something to worry too much about.

There is some evidence that eating a lot of red meat or processed meat might increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and of various other cardiometabolic diseases, but that evidence is of lower quality. Still, if you want to be especially cautious, you can limit your intake to three servings per week (1 serving of beef = 3 oz = 85 grams).

The Truth: Fears about red meat causing cancer are vastly exaggerated. Making healthy lifestyle choices (such as eating a balanced diet rich in whole foods, staying at a healthy weight, exercising, and not smoking) is overall more important than micromanaging your intake of red meat. Still, if you plan to eat less red meat, start with the kind that has been cured, smoked, or highly processed.

 

Myth 6: Salt is bad for you

Salt is bad for you

Some myths contain a grain of truth. Studies have associated excess salt with hypertension (high blood pressure),[53] kidney damage,[54] and an increased risk of cognitive decline.[55][56]

But salt (sodium) is an essential mineral; its consumption is critical to your health. The problem is when you consume too much sodium and too little potassium.

Another issue is the source of all that salt. The average North American eats an incredible amount of salty processed foods[57] — which means that people who consume a lot of salt tend to consume a lot of foods that are generally unhealthy. That makes it hard to tease apart sodium’s effects from overall dietary effects. Except for individuals with salt-sensitive hypertension,[58] the evidence in support of low sodium intakes is less conclusive than most people would imagine.[59][60] As it stands, both very high and very low intakes are associated with cardiovascular disease.[61]

The Truth: Salt reduction is important for people with salt-sensitive hypertension, and excessive salt intake is associated with harm. But a drastic decrease in salt intake has not shown uniform benefit in clinical trials. Most people will benefit more from a diet of mostly unprocessed foods than from micromanaging their salt intake.

Myth 7: Bread is bad for you

Bread has taken a beating over the past few years (especially white bread). The bread detractors generally make two arguments against its consumption:

  • Bread will make you fat.
  • Bread contains lots of gluten, which is bad for you.

Bread will not inherently make you fat, but it tends to be dense in calories and therefore easy to overeat. And of course, most people will eat bread with other high-calorie foods, such as butter, peanut butter, jam, or honey. This can lead to a caloric surplus and thus to weight gain over time. Moreover, while bread can be part of a healthful diet, a bread-centric diet can crowd out more nutrient-rich foods, notably fruits and vegetables.

Also, some people choose to avoid bread entirely because of its gluten content. Gluten critics claim that any amount of gluten (a protein, ironically, not a carb) is a danger to all. While “all” is an exaggeration, it is indeed possible to suffer from non-celiac gluten sensitivity.[62][63] However, it is also possible for your wheat sensitivity[64] to be caused by other compounds, such as FODMAPS (short-chain carbohydrates known to promote intestinal distress by fermenting and producing gas),[65][66] which are present in wheat, yes, but also in many other foods, such as legumes, apples, and milk (and other dairy products containing lactose).

White bread vs. whole-wheat bread

You may have heard that eating bread is all right as long as it’s whole-wheat bread. While white bread (made from wheat flour) and whole-wheat bread provide a similar number of calories, whole-wheat bread has a lower glycemic index and insulin index, and so its consumption results in a lower insulin release. For that reason, and because of its higher fiber and micronutrient content, whole-wheat bread is claimed to be healthier than white bread.

What the media frequently fails to mention is that the actual differences between white bread and whole-wheat bread are relatively small. Yes, whole-wheat bread has a higher fiber content — but this content pales compared to that of many fruits and vegetables. You most definitely don’t have to eat whole-wheat products to get enough fiber in your diet! And yes, white bread does lose more micronutrients during processing — but those micronutrients are often reintroduced later (the bread is then called “enriched”).

The Truth: While some people are sensitive to wheat, the gluten content isn’t necessarily to blame, and other foods may also be implicated. Bread, nor any other food, will inherently cause weight gain unless its consumption puts you in a caloric surplus. Though whole-wheat bread is claimed to be far healthier than white bread, they aren’t that different, and neither contains high levels of fiber or micronutrients.

 

Myth 8: HFCS is far worse than sugar

High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is a blend of glucose and fructose commonly used to sweeten food products.

Early evidence led to the belief that fructose could cause fatty-liver disease, as well as insulin resistance and obesity. By extension, HFCS is frequently said to be unhealthy, since it is high in fructose.

The reality is that there isn’t always more fructose in HFCS than in sugar. Liquid HFCS has a fructose content of 42–55%. Sucrose, also known as table sugar, is 50% fructose. The difference (−8% to +5%) is too slight to matter.

The Truth: HFCS and table sugar are very similar from a health perspective. Though HFCS may sometimes contain more fructose, the difference is negligible.

 

Myth 9: Dietary supplements are necessary

This is a favored line of thinking by supplement companies and health gurus. One argument is that crops are becoming poorer in nutrients[67] due to intensive agriculture and increasing levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere.[68] Another argument is that foods are a mess of unknown compounds, in addition to known “poisons” such as the dreaded saturated fatcholesterolgluten, and FODMAPs.

No wonder that more than one-third of Americans take a multivitamin/mineral. Better cover one’s bases, or so the thinking goes. Alas, there is no evidence that taking a multi will increase your life expectancy. While it may support your health in some ways, by ensuring adequate intakes of underconsumed nutrients, it could hurt it in others, by making you overconsume some nutrients to the point where they may harm your health.

Fact is, multis are seldom well formulated. Due to cost and space considerations (people willing to take one pill a day may balk at taking ten), multis are often rich in micronutrients abundant in a healthy diet and poor in others you are more likely to need. Try to focus on what you actually need by tweaking your diet and, in special cases, by supplementing with specific micronutrients — such as vitamin B12 if you are vegan or a senior, or vitamin D if your bare skin seldom gets enough sun exposure.

In fact, many foods you’ll find at the supermarket are already fortified with the micronutrients you’re most likely to lack. Milk, for instance, is frequently fortified with vitamin D, whereas salt is iodized, and enough foods are fortified with folic acid that you’re as likely to get too much as not enough.

In that light, it may be tempting to take the next step and live on meal replacements, with all the necessary nutrients added in and none of the aforementioned “poisons”. That could work — if we actually knew the optimal intakes for all nutrients.

We learn a little more each day, but there’s still much we don’t understand about food components and their interactions with different systems in our bodies, especially since those interactions can differ between individuals. So, until we reach a perfect understanding of the human body and its nutritional needs, you’re safer eating a varied diet of little-processed foods than ingesting the same meal replacement day after day after day. And it’ll taste better.

The Truth: Supplements have their use. Some people may benefit from supplementing specific vitamins or minerals. But supplements should complete a healthy diet — not replace it.

Myth 10: Food nutrients > supplemental nutrients

How often have you heard the claim that natural, whole foods are always better than synthetic supplements? In general, the word “natural” has a positive connotation, whereas “synthetic” or “chemical” has a negative one.

The truth, of course, isn’t so clear-cut. Some compounds are more effective in supplemental form. One example is the curcumin in turmeric. On its own, your body cannot absorb it well; but taken in liposomal form[69] or supplemented with piperine, a black pepper extract, curcumin sees its bioavailability increase dramatically.

The same goes for vitamins. For instance, phylloquinone (K1) is tightly bound to membranes in plants and so is more bioavailable in supplemental form.[70] Likewise, folic acid (supplemental B9) is more bioavailable than folate (B9 naturally present in foods), though that may not always be a good thing.

The Truth: With regard notably to vitamins, foods are not always superior to supplements.

Myth 11: Fresh is more nutritious

Fresh produce has a natural appeal to many people. “Fresh” just sounds better than “canned” or “frozen”, doesn’t it? But just because a food is fresh doesn’t necessarily mean it’s more nutritious.

Fresh produce is defined as anything that is “postharvest ripened” (if it ripens during transport) or “vine-ripened” (if it is picked and sold ripe: at a farmer’s fresh market or at a farmer’s roadside fruit stand, for instance).

Frozen produce is generally vine ripened before undergoing minimal processing prior to freezing. Most vegetables and some fruits undergo blanching in hot water for a few minutes prior to freezing, in order to inactivate enzymes that may cause unfavorable changes in color, flavor, smell, and nutritional value.[71] While there are some differences between fresh and frozen for select nutrients in select fruits and vegetables, overall the nutritional content is very similar.[72]

Canned produce is usually vine ripened, like frozen produce, but it tends to undergo a lot more processing, several forms of which can break down some essential nutrients, such as nitrates,[73] almost entirely. However, \ remember that cooking is also a form of processing, and that different ways of cooking can affect the produce’s nutrient content and bioavailability[74] more than its being fresh, frozen, or canned. An additional issue with canned produce, though, is that salt and sugar are often added as preservatives to vegetables and fruits respectively — so look at the label.

The Truth: There’s little difference between fresh and frozen produce, nutrient-wise. Canned produce tends to undergo a lot more processing, but remember that cooking is a form of processing too. Overall, fresh and frozen produce might be more nutritious than canned produce, but eating enough whole-food fruits and vegetables is more important than how they were processed.

Related article:

Myth 12: Foods labeled “natural” are healthier

It is natural to think that foods labelled “natural”, “all natural”, or “100% natural” are healthier, but what do those labels actually mean?

The answer isn’t as simple as it should be. To begin with, we need to divide foods into two categories. In the first, we have meat. In the second, everything else.

Meat

In the United States, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) must approve label claims for meat, including the “natural”“no hormones” and “no antibiotics” claims. However, what the “natural” claim means is just that the product is no more than “minimally processed” and does not contain any artificial ingredients (including chemical preservatives and artificial flavoring or coloring). It doesn’t necessarily mean that the cow wasn’t given antibiotics and hormones before it became a food product (as milk or meat, though the USDA only concerns itself with the latter).

Now, if hormones or antibiotics were given to a cow, they might be found in its meat, which would then contain artificial ingredients. But is the meat actually tested, or can it be labelled “natural” simply if nothing was added to it? (Which is to say, if nothing was added to the meat after the cow was killed and thus became beef.)

Considering that (1) the “no hormones” and “no antibiotics” claims require special documentation and (2) the “natural” claim only covers product processing and ingredient addition, the answer seems to be that a piece of beef can be labelled “natural” even if the originating cow was given hormones or antibiotics.

Other foods

For foods other than meat, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) steps in. At present, however, the FDA does not have a formal definition for the “natural” label. (This may soon change, though, as this label is currently undergoing a review process to determine if it should be better defined.)

Meanwhile, the FDA considers “natural” any food to which nothing artificial or synthetic was added “that would not normally be expected to be there / in that food”. Yes, that’s awfully vague. A little more precisely, the FDA states that a product without colorants (regardless of source) or synthetic substances (including artificial flavoring) can be labelled “natural”.

Note that, for the FDA, the label “natural” doesn’t reflect “food processing or manufacturing methods” or “food production methods, such as the use of genetic engineering or other forms of genetic modification, the use of pesticides, or the use of specific animal husbandry practices”.

The Truth: Overall, the “natural” label isn’t tightly regulated. Importantly, neither the USDA nor the FDA defines “natural” in relation to the healthfulness of the food. In other words, a “natural” label doesn’t guarantee the product is healthful (though it might be).

Myth 13: You should eat “clean”

Clean eating

This statement is not so much a myth as a jumble of misconceptions. First of all, people seldom agree on what “eating clean” actually means. For some, it means shunning specific foods for religious or ethical reasons (animal products, for instance). For others, it means eating only freshrawnaturalorganic foods. For others still, it means making sure their fruits and veggies are free of pesticides. One common point of clean diets is their focus on exclusion: they tell you what clean eating is by telling you what not to eat.

Only plant-based food

Veganism can be considered a prototypical clean diet, as it shuns all animal products both for ethical reasons and for better health. But although vegans and vegetarians do tend to be healthier on average,[75] this may be due to reasons unrelated to food. For instance, people who stick to a vegetarian diet are more likely to also stick to an exercise regimen and neither drink in excess nor smoke.[76][77]

As it stands, compared to people eating a varied omnivorous diet, vegans (and, to a lesser extent, vegetarians) are more likely to get suboptimal amounts of some nutrients, such as L-carnitine or vitamin B12. However, those nutrients can easily be supplemented — nowadays, there are even plant-based options for EPA, DHA, and vitamin D3.

Only raw food

Some “clean eating” gurus recommend that you only eat your food raw, so as not to “denature” its nutrients. As an absolute, this rule is a myth. Raw milk can contain harmful bacteria. Raw eggs contain avidin, a protein that can bind biotin and thus lead to biotin deficiency if consumed frequently,[78][79] and you’ll digest more protein from cooked than raw eggs.[80][81] Cooking can reduce the nitrate content of vegetables (bad) but also their oxalate content (good). You can’t generalize.

Only organic food

“Organic is better.” This is presented as self-evident, on the principle that “natural” is good whereas “synthetic” is bad. So far, however, what few studies have investigated the effect of organic food on clinical health outcomes have failed to consistently link organic foods (from plants or animals) to better health.[82][83]

It doesn’t mean that organic foods and better health are definitely not linked, but the issue is complex, and in some cases you’ll be trading one health risk for another. For instance, a 2018 test of protein powders revealed that the organic ones had about half the amount of BPA (an industrial chemical) but twice the amount of heavy metals.

One misconception is that no synthetic substance can be used to grow organic crops, whereas the National List of Allowed and Prohibited Substances makes some exceptions. Another misconception is that no pesticide can be used to grow organic crops. But while organic produce (notably fruit) less often has synthetic pesticide residue than do conventional produce,[84] natural (organic) pesticides exist, are used to grow organic crops, and are not always better for the consumer or the environment.[85]

Only pesticide-free produce

Pesticide residues in food are a valid concern, though it should be noted that the Pesticide Data Program (PDP) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has consistently found that the vast majority of the food on the market contains either no detectable residues or residues below the tolerable limits set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

When found, pesticide residues were similarly low in organic and conventional produce, but there is some evidence that even very low doses of pesticides might still elicit physiological effects.[86] These effects, be they beneficial, neutral, or harmful, and be they from organic or conventional pesticides, are not well studied.

So what is a consumer to do? The practical solution is quite simple: rinsing, peeling when possible, and cooking can reduce the amount of pesticide left on your produce,[87][88] whether this produce is organic or not.

The Truth: “Clean eating” is tough to define, as gurus don’t even agree on which foods are clean and which are not. Stick to the basics. Favor whole foods (but don’t feel like any small amount of processed foods will kill you), eat organic if you wish to and can afford it, and peel or wash all your vegetables and fruits.

 

Myth 14: You should “detox” regularly

You should “detox” regularly

“Detox diets” are the ultimate manifestation of the “clean eating” obsession. Such diets commonly limit foods to plant-based juices, sometimes seasoned with a supplement. After a few days of that regimen, you’re supposed to be cleansed of …

Well, detox-diet companies don’t really know. A 2009 investigation of ten companies found they couldn’t name a single “toxin” eliminated by any of their fifteen products — let alone prove that their products worked. Strictly speaking, toxins are plant- or animal-based substances poisonous to humans; but for many detox gurus, “toxins” also include heavy metals … and everything synthetic: not just toxicants (man-made poisons, such as pollutants or pesticides), but also preservatives, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), etc.

Alas, even when a substance really is noxious, a “detox diet” won’t help. Acute toxicity would likely constitute a medical emergency, whereas chronic toxicity can be handled better by a well-fed body — not one weakened by a severely hypocaloric diet. Your liver, kidneys, lungs, and other organs work around the clock to remove harmful substances and excrete the waste products of metabolism. By reducing your intake of the nutrients they need to perform these functions, a detox diet can hinder your body’s natural detoxification process! If you wish to promote this process, your best bet is to load up with various foods that can help these organs work optimally,[89] such as cruciferous and other fibrous veggies.[89][90]

Detox diets are not necessarily safe, either. Every now and then a case report emerges about potential risks, such as kidney damage from green smoothies[91] or liver failure from detox teas.[92]

But if detox diets are more likely to harm than help, what explains their current popularity? One answer is: quick weight loss. Deprive your body from carbs and you can exhaust its glycogen stores in as little as 24 hours. The resulting loss of several pounds can convince you that the diet had a positive effect.[93] When the diet ends and you resume your regular eating habits, however, the glycogen and associated water come rushing back in, and with them the pounds you’d shed.

So when people feel better from a detox diet, is it just a placebo effect? Not always. People on a detox diet might eat fewer calories yet more fruits and vegetables, thus more micronutrients. They may also stop consuming foods that don’t agree with them (in other words, detox diets work as de facto elimination diets).

The Truth: Focus on sustainable health habits, such as eating nutritious foods. Ample protein, leafy greens, and foods chock-full of vitamins and minerals are not just tastier than anything a “detox diet” has to offer, they’re also way better for you (and your liver detoxification pathways, ironically). A detox diet might make you feel better, but that’s usually because of the increased whole-food intake, not because any form of detoxification is taking place.

 

Myth 15: Eating often will boost your metabolism

It’s easy to trace this myth back to its origin. Digestion does raise your metabolism a little, so many people believe that eating less food more often keeps your metabolism elevated.

However, the size of the meal matters, too: fewer but larger meals means fewer but larger spikes in metabolism. Moreover, some studies suggest that having smaller meals more often makes it harder to feel full, potentially leading to increased food intake.[94]

More to the point, the evidence shows that, given an equal amount of daily calories, the number of meals makes no difference in fat loss.[95]

The Truth: Digestion does slightly increase your metabolic rate, but your meals’ frequency will have less effect on your weight than their total caloric content at the end of the day.

Related article:

Myth 16: You shouldn’t skip breakfast

“Breakfast is the most important meal of the day” is something we have all heard before from parents, doctors, health bloggers, and ad campaigns. But the health perks of consuming a regular breakfast have been overhyped.

People on #TeamBreakfast mention observational studies showing that, on average, breakfast skippers have a higher BMI.[96] However, clinical trials have shown that personal preference is a critical factor. Some people will subconsciously compensate for all the calories they skipped at breakfast, while others won’t feel cravings of the same magnitude. In one trial, women who didn’t habitually eat breakfast were made to consume it; they gained nearly 2 pounds over four weeks.[97] Individual responses do vary, so don’t try to force yourself into an eating pattern that doesn’t sit well with you or that you can’t sustain — it may end up backfiring.

Another popular claim is that skipping breakfast can crash your metabolism. But studies in both lean and overweight individuals have shown that skipping breakfast does not inherently slow your resting metabolic rate (RMR).[98][99]

However, the “don’t skip breakfast” mantra might hold true for people with impaired glucose regulation.[100]

The Truth: You don’t need to eat breakfast to be healthy or lose weight. You should base your breakfast consumption on your preferences and personal goals. Feel free to experiment to see if you want to make skipping breakfast a habit.

Myth 17: To lose fat, don’t eat before bed

Some studies show a fat-loss advantage in early eaters, others in late eaters. Overall, early eaters seem to have a slight advantage — nothing impressive.[101][102] Trials, however, imperfectly reflect real life. In real life, there are two main reasons why eating at night might hinder fat loss, and both are linked to an increase in your daily caloric intake.

The first reason is the simplest: if, instead of going directly to bed, we first indulge in a snack, then the calories from that snack are calories we might have done without.

The second reason is that, when we get tired, we tend to eat to keep going, with a predilection for snack foods or tasty treats. So if we stay awake at night — especially to work or study, but even just to watch TV — we’re more likely to eat, not out of hunger, but to help fight sleepiness.

The Truth: Eating late won’t make you gain weight, unless it drives you to eat more. Resisting tasty, high-calorie snacks can also be harder after a long day.

 

Myth 18: To lose fat, do cardio on an empty stomach

Let’s get one thing out of the way. If you exercise near maximal capacity (HIIT, sprints, heavy lifting …), eat one or two hours before, or you’re likely to underperform. Most people who choose to exercise on an empty stomach, however, opt for some moderate form of cardio (aerobic exercise), such as jogging, and then performance and energy expenditure are about the same in the fed state and the fasted state.

If you exercise in the fasted state, you’ll burn more body fat, of course, but that won’t make it easier for you to use body fat as fuel during the rest of the day (when you’re fed). You’ll also burn a tiny bit more muscle, but you’ll grow it back faster afterward too — it seems to balance out, as long as you get enough protein after your workout and over the whole day. Finally, cardio suppresses appetite less in the fasted state than in the fed state, but that doesn’t translate into a significant difference in daily caloric intake.

People with impaired glucose regulation may wish to avoid exercising on an empty stomach, and might want to avoid skipping breakfast even when they don’t exercise.[100]

The Truth: There’s very little difference between cardio in the fed or fasted state with regard to fat loss, muscle preservation, daily caloric intake, or metabolic rate. What really matters, then, is you. Some people feel lighter and energized when they do cardio on an empty stomach, while others feel light-headed and sluggish. Fed or fasted state: pick whichever makes you feel better.

 

Myth 19: You need protein right after your workout

When you exercise, you damage your muscles, which your body then needs to repair, often making them more resilient (bigger) in the process. The raw material for this repair is the protein you ingest, and yes, after exercising, your muscles are more sensitive to the anabolic effect of protein, thus creating a (still controversial[103][104]) window of opportunity — the “anabolic window”.

“You need protein right after your workout” may not be a myth so much as an exaggeration. What matters most is your daily protein intake, but yes, ideally, you’ll want a postworkout dose of protein in the range of your desirable minimum protein intake per meal (0.24–0.60 grams per kilogram of body weight, so 0.11–0.27 g/lb). If you’ve been exercising on an empty stomach, you’ll be in negative protein balance, so take this dose as soon as possible. Otherwise, try to take it within the next couple of hours — the exact size of your “anabolic window” depends on how much protein you’re still digesting.

The Truth: Unless you’ve been exercising on an empty stomach, you don’t need protein immediately after your workout, but you might benefit from 0.24–0.60 grams per kilogram of body weight (0.11–0.27 g/lb) within the next couple of hours. What matters most, however, is how much protein you get over the course of the day.

 

Myth 20: Creatine will increase your testosterone but cause hair loss and kidney damage

No, unlikely, and no. Being one of the most widely used supplements, creatine has been subjected to a whole host of spurious claims. Let’s tackle these three common ones.

Testosterone increase

Creatine helps you exercise harder by making it easier for your cells to regenerate adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a source of energy. To this day, there is not strong evidence that creatine can raise testosterone levels.

Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs), totalling 60 male participants, reported small yet statistically significant increases in either testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) from doses ranging from 5 to 25 grams of supplemental creatine.[105][106][107] However, ten other RCTs, totalling 218 male participants, reported no effect on testosterone from doses ranging from 3 to 25 grams of supplemental creatine.[108][109][110][105][111][112][113][114][115][116][117][109]

People wishing to optimize their testosterone levels should focus on better-proven options. Suboptimal levels of sleep, exercise, calories, vitamin Dmagnesium, and zinc can decrease testosterone production.

Hair loss

The idea that creatine might increase hair loss stems from a single RCT whose participants (20 healthy young male rugby players) saw a small but statistically significant increase in DHT after supplementing with creatine for 21 days.[105] When DHT, a potent metabolite of testosterone, binds to DHT receptors on the hair follicles of the scalp, those follicles may shrink and stop producing hair.[118][119]

To date, this RCT is the only one to have tested creatine’s effect on DHT. However, twelve others have tested creatine’s effect on testosterone: two reported a small increase,[106][107] but ten reported no effect.[108][109][110][105][111][112][113][114][115][116] Of those twelve RCTs, five also tested creatine’s effect on free testosterone, the form that gets converted into DHT, and all reported no effect (no statistically significant increase or decrease was detected).[108][111][113][109][115]

Now, creatine could nonsignificantly increase free testosterone yet significantly increase DHT, because a small percent increase in free testosterone, which can convert into DHT, could lead to a much greater percent increase in total DHT. So it’s technically possible that creatine might have some effect on hair loss — but current evidence and mechanistic data indicate it’s quite unlikely.

Kidney damage

Blood levels of creatinine (a byproduct of energy production) are used as an indicator of kidney function, but elevated levels caused by supplemental creatine are not a sign that your kidneys underperform.[120][121]

No adverse effects on kidney function were found in …

  • People with healthy kidneys taking up to 10 grams of creatine per day. Short- and long-term trials are numerous and the results are consistent.[122][123][124][125][126][127][128][129]
  • People with healthy kidneys taking more than 10 grams of creatine per day. Long-term trials are few, however, so caution is warranted.[129]
  • People with suboptimal kidney function taking up to 5 grams of creatine per day. Trials in this population are scarce, however, so caution is warranted.[130][131][132][133]

If you plan to have your creatinine levels tested, stop taking creatine at least 3 weeks before the test to avoid a false positive.

The Truth: Out of all the supplements out there, creatine is one of the most extensively researched. The vast majority of the evidence indicates that this supplement is safe for long-term use and is unlikely to harm your kidneys, cause hair loss, or increase your testosterone.

 

Misinformation in the mainstream media

You’ve likely heard most of these 20 myths repeated at one time or another — by a friend, on a blog, or somewhere in the media. Misinformation is rampant and difficult to identify, and unfortunately spreads much faster than facts.

And really, this is just the tip of the iceberg. You’ll often see sensationalist headlines based on a study with unsurprising results. In mid-2017, for instance, the media went into a frenzy of similar headlines claiming that a review paper[134] showed that coconut oil was “bad” for you; of course, when we analyzed the studies, we found that coconut oil, like most other natural foods, has both benefits and downsides. Even the major, eight-million dollar study led by Christopher Gardner of Stanford University, which compared the weight-loss effects of low-fat and low-carb diets,[17] was misrepresented all over the media. (According to Dr. Gardner, Examine.com did the very best job in covering the study.)

That’s why we have an entire team poring over the research. And not just one or two studies, either — but the entire body of evidence.

Brush Up on Dental Care for Diabetes

You’ve no doubt heard this advice for keeping your mouth healthy your entire life: Brush, floss, and see your dentist for regular checkups.”These are things that all of us should be doing,” says Robert A. Gabbay, MD, PhD, chief medical officer at Joslin Diabetes Center in Boston. “But it’s even more important for people with diabetes because the stakes are a lot higher.”

Why? When you have diabetes, you’re at greater risk for dental problems, including gum disease, Gabbay says. And if you don’t keep your blood sugar in check, that makes you “more likely to get infections of the mouth,” Gabbay says. “And infections of the mouth making it more likely that blood sugars are poorly controlled.”

Diabetes can also lead to dry mouth, caused by having less saliva, which can make you more prone to cavities. And high blood sugar raises your chances of getting thrush, an often painful fungal infection that causes white or red patches in your mouth, according to the American Diabetes Association.

What are some warning signs that you should see your dentist immediately? Tooth pain, bleeding when brushing, gums pulling away from your teeth, or dentures that start to fit poorly, Gabbay says. “And of course infection — painful, red, swollen, tender gums or pus. Even persistent bad breath can be a sign of poor oral hygiene that should be cared for.”

Some people may not have any warning signs of gum disease, so be sure to see your dentist twice a year for checkups.

Here are questions to ask at your next appointment:

  • How does having diabetes affect my teeth and gums?
  • What kinds of mouth symptoms should I watch out for?
  • What can I do to prevent dry mouth?
  • Could medications be causing dry mouth?
  • How often should I get my teeth checked?

Practice good habits to keep your mouth healthy. Brush twice a day with fluoride toothpaste, floss daily, and remove and clean dentures if you wear them.

If you smoke, quit. Smoking increases your risk of getting gum disease and makes it harder to treat. Ask your dentist or doctor if you should use mouthwash.

How else can you avoid mouth problems when you have diabetes? Control your blood sugar.”When we think about better control of blood sugar, there are four key things we keep in mind,” Gabbay says. “Diet, which includes eating the right foods and having the right portion size; exercise; medication; and monitoring [regularly testing your blood sugar] to be able to tell whether things are working or not.”

Another reason to brush up when you have diabetes? There seems to be a link between gum disease and heart and blood vessel disease, Gabbay says. While the cause-and-effect connection isn’t clear, one recent study found that people who had a stroke were more likely to have an oral infection than those in a control group, according to the American Academy of Periodontology.

Just one more reason to take care of your pearly whites.

Can You Reverse Type 2 Diabetes?

Low-Calorie Diet

Several studies in England have looked at the effects of a very low-calorie diet on diabetes. Two had people follow a mostly liquid diet of 625-850 calories a day for 2-5 months, followed by a less restricted diet designed to help them keep off the weight they lost. Both studies found that nearly half the people who took part reversed their diabetes and kept their blood glucose near the normal range for at least 6 months to a year.

This type of diet is extreme. It means working with a professional and being very controlled with how many calories you eat. But the chance that it could send you into remission may give you strong motivation to stick to it.

Most of the people who reversed their type 2 diabetes lost 30 pounds or more. They also hadn’t had diabetes as long as those who weren’t as successful. So it’s important to get started on a weight loss plan as soon as possible after you’re diagnosed.

What Happens

When you have type 2 diabetes, cells that help your body control your blood sugar stop working right. Doctors used to think they were shut down for good, but research shows that certain cells may come back. People who lost weight had lower levels of fat in their liver and pancreas, and for some of them, that helped the beta cells in their pancreas that release insulin and control blood sugar start working again.

The odds of rescuing those cells are best early on. That suggests it may be better for doctors to help people lose a lot of weight after a diagnosis, rather than make small lifestyle changes and manage symptoms with medication.

Exercise

More physical activity is a way to improve diabetes, but it may be tough to lose enough weight to go into remission with workouts alone. When combined with changes to your eating, though, exercise helps. A modest, lower-calorie diet plus a big step-up in burning calories could put you on the path to remission.

A study that had people aim for 10,000 steps a day and at least 2 1/2 hours of moderate exercise a week — along with cutting 500-750 calories a day and following a specific insulin and medication routine — saw more than half of them reach near-normal blood sugar without medication. Some were able to keep those levels long-term, too.

The bottom line: It’s the weight loss that really matters. Exercise can help you get there, but expect to change your diet as well.

Bariatric Surgery

This type of surgery helps you lose weight by changing your stomach and digestive system to limit how much you can eat. Aside from helping you lose weight, it may help reverse diabetes in other ways, although scientists don’t yet know exactly why. One theory is that it affects the hormones in your gut to help your body control blood glucose.

Researchers estimate that upwards of three-quarters of people see their diabetes reversed after bariatric surgeryGastric bypass and gastric sleeve (also called sleeve gastrectomy) surgery have better long-term results than gastric banding.

Bariatric surgery is generally an option only when your BMI is 35 or higher. It works best for people who’ve had the disease for 5 years or less and don’t use insulin.

If you’re obese and recently diagnosed, it’s something to talk about with your doctor. Because it’s surgery, there are serious risks. But most people who have it done end up reversing their diabetes.

Fasting

Fasting can be a practical way to lose weight because it’s fairly straightforward, but it’s not a mainstream treatment for type 2 diabetes.

A very small study found therapeutic fasting — going without food and drink with calories for a set amount of time — can help reverse type 2 diabetes. Three people with diabetes followed a diet program of three 24-hour fasts each week for several months. They would eat only dinner on days they fasted, and lunch and dinner on days they didn’t fast, focusing on low-carbohydrate meals.

Two of the people in the study were able to stop taking all diabetes medication, and the third stopped three of his four medications. Within 1-3 weeks, all three of them could stop taking insulin. They lost between 10% and 18% of their body weight, or 20-23 pounds.Another study showed that eating very few calories (500-600) 2 days a week and a normal diet the other days helped people with type 2 diabetes lose weight and lower their blood sugar levels just as much as limiting calories to 1,200-1,500 every day.If you want to try fasting, you should work with your doctor so you get the right information and support to do it safely.

What Doesn’t Work

When it comes to reversing diabetes, there’s no magic pill. If you see a product that claims to cure diabetes or replace your prescribed diabetes medication, beware. The FDA cautions that many illegally marketed things are unproven and possibly dangerous, including:

  • Dietary supplements
  • Over-the-counter drugs
  • Alternative medicines
  • Homeopathic products
  • Prescription drugs

They found some products that claimed to be “all natural” had prescription drugs that weren’t listed as ingredients. Those could change the way other medications you’re taking work or cause you to take too much of a drug without realizing it.

The Best Core Exercises for All Fitness Levels

Whether you’re pushing a grocery cart or putting on shoes, you use your core to accomplish everyday activities. It also affects your balance, posture, and stability.

Contrary to popular belief, the core doesn’t just include the abdominal muscles. It also consists of muscles in your back and around your pelvis.

Your core, or trunk, includes:

  • Erector spinae. The erector spinae is a back muscle that extends your trunk. It helps you stand up straight after bending over.
  • Rectus abdominis. When you bend forward, you use an abdominal muscle called the rectus abdominis. It’s known as the “six pack” muscle.
  • Obliques. Your internal oblique and external oblique let you rotate or bend your trunk.
  • Transverse abdominis. The transverse abdominis, which wraps around the front and side of your trunk, stabilizes your pelvis.
  • Multifidus. The multifidus in your back supports your spine.

Keeping these muscles strong helps stabilize your body, support your spine, and enhance your overall fitness.

Read on for the best core-strengthening moves for every fitness level.

Beginner moves

If you’re new to exercise or if you haven’t exercised in a long time, start with these beginner moves.

Bridge

This pose activates your glutes to lift your hips. This trains your core while toning your butt and thighs.

  1. Start on your back. Bend your knees and plant your feet on the floor at hip width. Place your hands at your sides, palms down.
  2. Tighten your core and glutes.
  3. Raise your hips until your knees are in line with your shoulders.
  4. Hold for 10–30 seconds.

Crunch

Crunches are a classic core-strengthening move. The act of lifting your upper body works your abdominal muscles.

If you have low back pain, do crunches with care. Move slowly and start with just a few reps.

  1. Start on your back. Bend your knees and plant your feet on the floor at hip width. Line up your head and spine. Cross your arms across your chest.
  2. Tighten your core and relax your neck and shoulders. Tuck in your chin and lift your upper back, keeping your lower back, pelvis, and feet on the floor. Pause.
  3. Slowly lower your upper back to return to the starting position.
  4. Start with 1 set of 8–12 reps.

Plank

The plank is a full-body exercise that targets your core. It also strengthens your arms, shoulders, back, glutes, and legs.

  1. Start on all fours, with your hands below your shoulders and your knees below your hips.
  2. Straighten your legs behind you, keeping your feet hip-width apart. Tighten your core.
  3. Hold for 10–30 seconds.

To make this exercise easier, place your knees on the floor.

Supine Toe Tap

The Supine Toe Tap is a basic Pilates exercise. It engages your core muscles while working your glutes, hips, and legs.

Toe taps also place minimal pressure on your spine. If you have back pain, toe taps may be an ideal alternative to crunches.

  1. Start on your back. Lift your legs, knees bent to 90 degrees. Place your hands at your sides, palms down.
  2. Tighten your core. Lower your right foot and gently tap the floor, keeping your left leg still and your back flat.
  3. Raise your right leg to return to the starting position. Repeat with your left leg.
  4. Start with 1 set of 8–12 reps.

As you get stronger, take it up a notch with these intermediate exercises.

Bird dog

The bird dog engages both your abdominal and back muscles, so it’s an ideal core-strengthening move. It also challenges your coordination, balance, and stability.

  1. Start on all fours, hands below your shoulders and knees below your hips.
  2. Tighten your core. Lift and straighten your right leg to hip level. Simultaneously lift and extend your left arm to shoulder level, palm down. Pause.
  3. Repeat with your left leg and right arm.
  4. Start with 1 set of 8–12 reps.

Mountain climber

This intermediate exercise combines a plank with knee movements, so it’s an excellent move for balance and core strength.

  1. Start in a plank with your hands below your shoulders. Tighten your core.
  2. Lift your right knee toward your chest, keeping your back straight and hips down.
  3. Return your right leg to the starting position as you simultaneously lift your left knee toward your chest.
  4. Continue alternating legs. Start with 1 set of 8–12 reps.

Warrior crunch

This crunch variation works your core and lower body, including your thighs, glutes, and quads.

  1. Stand with your feet slightly wider than shoulder width and your toes turned outward. Put your hands behind your head and open your chest.
  2. Tighten your core and glutes. Bend your knees until your thighs are parallel to the floor.
  3. Bend your torso to the side, moving your right elbow toward your right thigh. Repeat on the left side.
  4. Start with 1 set of 8–12 reps.

Advanced moves

Once you’ve mastered intermediate moves, challenge yourself to an advanced core routine. These exercises will further build core strength by engaging your muscles in more complex ways.

Side plank with rotation

This exercise is an advanced version of the basic plank. It strengthens the arms, shoulders, and obliques by combining a side plank with arm movements.

  1. Lie on your right side with your right forearm below your shoulder. Extend your legs, left foot on top of right. Tighten your core.
  2. Lift your hips to form a straight line with your body. Raise your left arm straight up.
  3. Rotate your torso toward the floor and bring your left arm under your body.
  4. Rotate your torso and straighten your left arm to return to the starting position.
  5. Start with 1 set of 8–12 reps.
  6. Repeat on the other side.

Bird dog with elbow to knee

This variation on the basic bird dog incorporates fluid movement to engage your abs and back while improving core mobility.

  1. Start on all fours, hands below your shoulders and knees below your hips.
  2. Tighten your core. Lift and straighten your right leg to hip level. Simultaneously lift and extend your left arm to shoulder level, palm down.
  3. Bring your right knee and left elbow toward each other. Return to the starting position.
  4. Start with 1 set of 8–12 reps.
  5. Repeat on the other side.

Bicycle crunch

This classic exercise strengthens your abs by placing them under constant tension.

  1. Start on your back. Bend your knees and plant your feet on the floor at hip width. Line up your head and spine. Place your hands behind your head, elbows pointing out to the sides.
  2. Tighten your core and move your shoulders back and down. Bend your right knee toward your chest and extend your left leg, lifting it a few inches off the floor.
  3. Lift your left shoulder and upper back, bringing your left elbow toward your right knee.
  4. Tap your left shoulder on the floor and simultaneously switch your legs.
  5. Continue alternating elbows and knees, starting with 1 set of 8–12 reps.

The bottom line

Whether you’re looking to kick-start a regular exercise routine or add an extra push to your existing one, core-strengthening moves are a great starting place.

Talk to your healthcare provider before starting a new exercise routine. If you have a past or current back injury, consult a personal trainer. They can show you how to safely tone and train your core.

Tipsbook
Click Here
Holler Box